Vision loss progressing over several days, reduced pupil reactions to light, and swollen optic nerves were the clinical features in six patients with severe renal disease manifested by uremia, anemia, and (in four patients) moderately or severely elevated blood pressure. In two patients pale edema of the optic nerve head extended into the macula. One patient with renal transplant rejection was in the early phases of cryptococcal meningitis that went undiagnosed for two weeks. Medical management with hemodialysis was followed by improvement of vision in four patients. In one patient, resumption of oral corticosteroid therapy was followed by improvement in vision. The patient whose vision improved the most rapidly was managed by prompt use of both dialysis and oral corticosteroid therapy. The patient with cryptococcal meningitis did not recover vision.