Postmortem analysis of brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has led to diverse theories about the causes of the pathology, suggesting that this complex disease involves multiple physiological changes. In an effort to better understand the variety and integration of these changes, we generated a gene expression profile for AD brain. Comparing affected and unaffected brain regions in nine controls and six AD cases, we showed that 118 of the 7050 sequences on a broadly representative cDNA microarray were differentially expressed in the amygdala and cingulate cortex, two regions affected early in the disease. The identity of these genes suggests the most prominent upregulated physiological correlates of pathology involve chronic inflammation, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and protein synthesis (31 upregulated genes). Conversely, downregulated correlates of pathology involve signal transduction, energy metabolism, stress response, synaptic vesicle synthesis and function, calcium binding, and cytoskeleton (87 downregulated genes). The results support several separate theories of the causes of AD pathology, as well as add to the list of genes associated with AD. In addition, approximately 10 genes of unknown function were found to correlate with the pathology.