A compulsion to take a drug combined with a loss of control in limiting intake is the defining feature of substance dependence or addiction, and is the conceptual framework for the criteria of substance dependence or addiction outlined by the World Health Organization and the American Psychiatric Association. However, defining exactly what constitutes loss of control and compulsive drug taking at the level of animal models is a daunting task, and it is clear that no validated animal model exists for the whole syndrome of addiction. The present discussion redefines loss of control as a narrowing of the behavioral repertoire toward drug-seeking behavior and suggests that there are many sources of reinforcement that contribute to this behavioral focus on drug seeking. Evidence is presented demonstrating separate animal models for many of these sources of reinforcement as well as for most of the criteria for substance dependence. Evidence is also presented showing that the brain neurochemical systems involved in processing drug reward are altered by chronic drug exposure to contribute additional sources of reinforcement. Challenges for the future involve not only elucidation of the neurobiological substrates of the different behavioral components of addiction, but better animal models of these components with which to effect such studies.