We evaluated the effects of abciximab treatment during early angioplasty after clinically failed thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. In the Global Use of Strategies To Open occluded coronary arteries (GUSTO-III) trial of reteplase versus alteplase for acute infarction (n = 15,059), 392 patients underwent angioplasty a median of 3.5 hours after thrombolysis and had complete procedural data. We compared 30-day mortality and in-hospital outcomes between patients who received abciximab (n = 83) and those who did not (n = 309), and (among patients given abciximab) between those randomized to alteplase versus reteplase. Patients given abciximab had anterior infarction less often, but were more often in Killip classes III or IV. The 30-day mortality rate tended to be lower with abciximab (3.6% vs 9.7%, p = 0.076), more so after adjustment for baseline differences (p = 0.042). The composite of death, stroke, or reinfarction did not differ significantly with abciximab treatment (12% vs 14%, p = 0.7), but it occurred less often among abciximab-treated patients who had been randomized to reteplase (n = 55) versus alteplase (n = 28) (7% vs 21%, p = 0.08). Severe bleeding was increased among abciximab-treated patients (3.6% vs 1.0%, p = 0.08), despite less heparin use. No intracranial hemorrhages occurred with abciximab. The use of abciximab for early angioplasty after clinically failed thrombolysis resulted in trends toward lower 30-day mortality and increased bleeding.