We have previously shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is abolished in the liver of HBV transgenic mice by inflammatory cytokines induced by HBV-specific cytotoxic T cells and during unrelated viral infections of the liver. We now report that intrahepatic HBV replication is also inhibited in mice infected by the malaria species Plasmodium yoelii 17X NL. P. yoelii infection triggers an intrahepatic inflammatory response characterized by the influx of natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells. During this process, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IFN-alpha/beta suppress HBV gene expression and replication in the liver. Collectively, the data suggest that malaria infection might influence the course and pathogenesis of HBV infection in coinfected humans.