Tropomodulin (E-Tmod) is an actin filament pointed end capping protein that maintains the length of the sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel tropomodulin isoform, skeletal tropomodulin (Sk-Tmod) from chickens. Sk-Tmod is 62% identical in amino acid sequence to the previously described chicken E-Tmod and is the product of a different gene. Sk-Tmod isoform sequences are highly conserved across vertebrates and constitute an independent group in the tropomodulin family. In vitro, chicken Sk-Tmod caps actin and tropomyosin-actin filament pointed ends to the same extent as does chicken E-Tmod. However, E- and Sk-Tmods differ in their tissue distribution; Sk-Tmod predominates in fast skeletal muscle fibers, lens, and erythrocytes, while E-Tmod is found in heart and slow skeletal muscle fibers. Additionally, their expression is developmentally regulated during chicken breast muscle differentiation with Sk-Tmod replacing E-Tmod after hatching. Finally, in skeletal muscle fibers that coexpress both Sk- and E-Tmod, they are recruited to different actin filament-containing cytoskeletal structures within the cell: myofibrils and costameres, respectively. All together, these observations support the hypothesis that vertebrates have acquired different tropomodulin isoforms that play distinct roles in vivo.