We have examined the expression of integrins on primary oligodendroglial cells during the differentiation of the proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor (O-2A progenitor) cell to the postmitotic oligodendrocyte. Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage expressed a limited repertoire of integrins: alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha v integrins including alpha v beta 1, alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5, as well as a potentially novel integrin alpha v beta 80 kDa. Integrin expression was developmentally regulated; during differentiation alpha v beta 1 was reduced and alpha v beta 5 upregulated. These results suggest that laminin and vitronectin are important extracellular matrix ligands for oligodendrocytes, and provide a rational explanation for previous observations that RGD peptides inhibit the expression of myelin-specific genes. They also suggest a simple model by which switching of integrin beta subunits might regulate differentiation. As chimeric beta 1 integrins with a beta 5 cytoplasmic domain support proliferation less well than normal beta 1 integrins (Pasqualini and Hemler (1994), J. Cell Biol. 125, 447-460) the switch from alpha v beta 1 to alpha v beta 5 might play a key instructive role in the cessation of proliferation and subsequent differentiation.