The hypothesis that a gene for susceptibility to psychosis (specifically in the X-Y homologous class) is located on the sex chromosomes has been proposed. Such a gene would account for the excess of sex chromosome anomalous males and females in populations of patients with psychosis, a tendency towards concordance by sex within families, and sex differences associated with psychosis and its underlying brain pathology. In earlier studies we observed small positive LOD scores in Xp11, and in a more recent and larger cohort of 178 sibling pairs, a peak multipoint nonparametric LOD score of 1. 55 at the locus DXS8032 in Xq21. The present study with a new set of markers extended the cohort to 301 ill sibling pairs and their parents. Despite the increase in sample size, the LOD score did not increase. A peak NPL of 1.55 was observed at the locus DXS1068 in proximal Xp, a region remote from the previous report. Separating families into those who were more likely to have X chromosome inheritance (maternal with no male to male transmission) did not yield stronger findings. In spite of the evidence that psychosis is related to a sex-dependent dimension of cerebral asymmetry, it is concluded that no consistent linkage of schizophrenia to the X chromosome can be demonstrated. In the context of the general failure of replication of linkage in psychosis, the possibility that the genetic predisposition to psychosis is contributed to by epigenetic modification rather than variations in the nucleotide sequence has to be considered.