Measurement of locomotor sensitization was employed to characterize the effect of intermittent treatment with N-[1-(2-benzo[b]thiophenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (BTCP) and cocaine in the rat. Like cocaine, BTCP possesses high affinity for the dopamine transporter and inhibits dopamine reuptake. Although both drugs exhibit similar behavioral and neurochemical profiles with acute administration, there is tentative evidence to suggest that following chronic treatment BTCP does not induce neurochemical sensitization, and can attenuate cocaine-induced neurochemical sensitization in the striatum. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups after determining baseline locomotor activity. Three groups were treated with either saline (saline/saline), cocaine (20 mg/kg; cocaine/cocaine), or BTCP (10 mg/kg; BTCP/BTCP) for 10 days. The remaining two groups were treated with cocaine (20 mg/kg) or BTCP (10 mg/kg) for 3 days, followed by administration of BTCP (10 mg/kg; cocaine/BTCP) or cocaine (20 mg/kg; BTCP/cocaine) for 7 days. Locomotor sensitization was observed in all groups. However, although cross-sensitization on the day of substitution (day 4) was found in the BTCP/cocaine group, cross-sensitization was not observed in the cocaine/BTCP group. These results suggest that although the locomotor-activating effects of BTCP and cocaine are similar, the two drugs do not act identically, and different neural mechanisms may underlie BTCP and cocaineinduced sensitization.