Adenovirus (Ad) entry into cells is initiated by the binding of the fiber knob to a cell surface receptor. The coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) functions as the attachment receptor for many, but not all, Ad serotypes. Ad type 37 (Ad37), a subgroup D virus that causes keratoconjunctivitis in humans, does not infect cells via CAR despite demonstrated binding of the Ad37 knob to CAR. We have pseudotyped a fiber deletion Ad5 vector with the Ad37 fiber (Ad37f), and this vector retains the ocular tropism of Ad37. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of Ad37f that shows the entire Ad37 fiber, including the shaft and knob domains. We have previously proposed that Ad37 may not utilize CAR for cell entry because of the geometric constraints imposed by a rigid fiber (E. Wu, J. Fernandez, S. K. Fleck, D. Von Seggern, S. Huang, and G. R. Nemerow, Virology 279:78-89, 2001). Consistent with this hypothesis, our structural results show that the Ad37 fiber is straight and rigid. Modeling of the interaction between Ad37f and host cell receptors indicates that fiber flexibility or rigidity, as well as length, can affect receptor usage and cellular tropism.