Ubiquitination of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) terminates signaling by marking active receptors for degradation. c-Cbl, an adapter protein for RPTKs, positively regulates RPTK ubiquitination in a manner dependent on its variant SRC homology 2 (SH2) and RING finger domains. Ubiquitin-protein ligases (or E3s) are the components of ubiquitination pathways that recognize target substrates and promote their ligation to ubiquitin. The c-Cbl protein acted as an E3 that can recognize tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, such as the activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor, through its SH2 domain and that recruits and allosterically activates an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme through its RING domain. These results reveal an SH2-containing protein that functions as a ubiquitin-protein ligase and thus provide a distinct mechanism for substrate targeting in the ubiquitin system.