Resistance or susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to the parasite Leishmania major correlates with CD4+ T cell responses of the Th1 or Th2 subsets, respectively. To evaluate the genetic basis for this difference, resistant B10.D2 mice were backcrossed onto susceptible BALB/c mice for five generations with selection for resistance. Candidate resistance loci were identified by high frequency of heterozygosity in resistant N5 backcross mice. Loci on chromosomes 6, 7, 10, 11, 15, and 16 were associated with resistance, demonstrating the multigenic nature of this phenotype. The presence of all six loci was not necessary to confer resistance and no single locus was required. Rather, a variety of combinations of these loci may be capable of interacting to confer resistance.