It is widely assumed that the human brain contains genetically identical cells through which postgenomic mechanisms contribute to its enormous diversity and complexity. The relatively recent identification of neural cells throughout the neuraxis showing somatically generated mosaic aneuploidy indicates that the vertebrate brain can be genomically heterogeneous (Rehen et al.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98:13361-13366; Rehen et al.  J. Neurosci. 25:2176-2180; Yurov et al.  PLoS ONE:e558; Westra et al.  J. Comp. Neurol. 507:1944-1951). The extent of human neural aneuploidy is currently unknown because of technically limited sample sizes, but is reported to be small (Iourov et al.  Int. Rev. Cytol. 249:143-191). During efforts to interrogate larger cell populations by using DNA content analyses, a surprising result was obtained: human frontal cortex brain cells were found to display "DNA content variation (DCV)" characterized by an increased range of DNA content both in cell populations and within single cells. On average, DNA content increased by approximately 250 megabases, often representing a substantial fraction of cells within a given sample. DCV within individual human brains showed regional variation, with increased prevalence in the frontal cortex and less variation in the cerebellum. Further, DCV varied between individual brains. These results identify DCV as a new feature of the human brain, encompassing and further extending genomic alterations produced by aneuploidy, which may contribute to neural diversity in normal and pathophysiological states, altered functions of normal and disease-linked genes, and differences among individuals.