To determine how individual differences stemming from activity preference, previous food intake, and time-of-day affect the P300 or P3 event-related brain potential (ERP), subject groups who varied orthogonally on these factors were compared using a simple auditory discrimination task to elicit the ERPs. Amplitude of the P3 component for morning-preferring subjects who had eaten recently was relatively large for both the morning and evening measurement time groups. P3 amplitude for the morning-preferring subjects who had not eaten recently was large for those measured in the morning and relatively small for those subjects measured in the evening. For evening-preferring subjects who had eaten recently, P3 amplitude was again relatively large for both the morning and evening measurement time groups. Evening-preferring subjects who had not eaten recently produced very small P3 components for those measured in the morning compared to the large components produced by those subjects measured in the evening. P3 latency tended to be longer for all subjects who had not eaten recently compared to those who had. The results suggest that the P3 component is sensitive to physiological and psychological changes originating from individual differences related to bodily state, which perhaps stems from individual differences in arousal level.