Type I interferons (IFN) play a critical role in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated expression of B7 costimulatory family members. For example, LPS-induced up-regulation of CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) is abrogated in antigen-presenting cells (APC) deficient in TRIF or TRAM, two adaptors that are responsible for TLR4-mediated production of Type I IFN. In this report, we demonstrate that LPS-induced up-regulation of B7-related protein 1 (B7RP-1), a ligand for ICOS, is dependent primarily upon the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Signaling via the TRIF pathway sharply limits MyD88-dependent B7RP-1 up-regulation. Hence, LPS induces significantly higher B7RP-1 expression on TRIF- or TRAM-deficient mouse peritoneal macrophages and on TRIF-deficient mouse splenic B cells as compared to wild-type cells. Further studies reveal that Type I IFN are general suppressors of TLR-mediated up-regulation of B7RP-1. These data indicate that Type I IFN play a dual role in the TLR-mediated expression of B7 costimulatory family members and suggest that they may act to limit B7RP-1 expression and thus limit signals derived from B7RP-1-ICOS interaction.