Human immunodeficiency virus envelope (gp120) binding to dc-sign and primary dendritic cells is carbohydrate dependent but does not involve 2g12 or cyanovirin binding sites: Implications for structural analyses of gp120-dc-sign binding
The calcium-dependent lectin, DC-SIGN, binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (and simian immunodeficiency virus) gp120 and mediates the binding and transfer of HIV from monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) to permissive T cells. However, it has been recently reported that DC-SIGN binding to HIV gp120 may be carbohydrate independent. Here, we formally demonstrate that gp120 binding to DC-SIGN and MDDCs is largely if not wholly carbohydrate dependent. Endo-beta-N-glucosaminidase H (EndoH) treatment of gp120-Fc under conditions that maintained wild-type CD4 binding-and the full complement of complex glycans-significantly decreased (>90%) binding to DC-SIGN expressing cell lines, as well as to MDDCs. Any residual binding of EndoH-treated gp120-Fc to DC-SIGN was completely competed off with mannan. Mutational analysis indicated that no single glycosylation site affected the ability of gp120-Fc to bind DC-SIGN. To further guide our efforts in mapping the DC-SIGN binding sites on gp120, we used two well-characterized HIV inhibitory agents (2G12 monoclonal antibody and cyanovirin) that bind to high-mannose sugars on gp120. We showed that 2G12 and DC-SIGN bound to nonoverlapping sites in gp120 because (i) 2G12 did not block soluble gp120 or virion binding to DC-SIGN, (ii) 2G12 bound to gp120-Fc that was prebound to cell surface DC-SIGN, and (iii) gp120-Fc mutants that lack glycosylation sites involved in 2G12's epitope were also fully capable of binding DC-SIGN. These data were substantiated by the inability of cyanovirin to block gp120-Fc binding to DC-SIGN. Cyanovirin has been shown to effectively compete for 2G12 binding to gp120. Indeed, high concentrations of cyanovirin dramatically enhanced gp120-Fc binding to cell surfaces in the presence or absence of DC-SIGN. We provide evidence that this enhancement may be due to cyanovirin's ability to bridge gp120 to mannosylated cell surface proteins. These results have implications for antiviral therapeutics and for ongoing efforts to finely map the glycan structures on gp120 responsible for DC-SIGN binding.