Although typical primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are relatively neutralization resistant, three human monoclonal antibodies and a small number of HIV-1(+) human sera that neutralize the majority of isolates have been described. The monoclonal antibodies (2G12, 2F5, and b12) represent specificities that a putative vaccine should aim to elicit, since in vitro neutralization has been correlated with protection against primary viruses in animal models. Furthermore, a neutralization escape mutant to one of the antibodies (b12) selected in vitro remains sensitive to neutralization by the other two (2G12 and 2F5) (H. Mo, L. Stamatatos, J. E. Ip, C. F. Barbas, P. W. H. I. Parren, D. R. Burton, J. P. Moore, and D. D. Ho, J. Virol. 71:6869-6874, 1997), supporting the notion that eliciting a combination of such specificities would be particularly advantageous. Here, however, we describe a small subset of viruses, mostly pediatric, which show a high level of neutralization resistance to all three human monoclonal antibodies and to two broadly neutralizing sera. Such viruses threaten antibody-based antiviral strategies, and the basis for their resistance should be explored.