We examined the distribution of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in LPS-responsive (C3H/St) and LPS-unresponsive (C3H/HeJ) mice. The results reported here demonstrate that the rates of removal of an immunological or a toxic dose of LPS from the circulation are the same in both strains of mice. C3H/St spleens accumulated significantly more LPS than C3H/HeJ spleens after the intravenous injection of either an immunogenic or a toxic dose of LPS. There was also a greater amount of LPS associated with cells teased from C3H/St spleens compared to those from C3H/HeJ spleens. After a toxic dose of LPS, there was more LPS in C3H/St lymph nodes, adrenals, lungs, kidneys, and heart than in the corresponding C3H/HeJ tissues. The accumulation of more LPS in tissues from C3H/St mice compared to C3H/HeJ mice suggests that these tissues are involved in the pathophysiological and, ultimately, the toxic effects of LPS. The differential accumulation of LPS in the tissues of these two strains may be the reason for the decreased responses of C3H/HeJ mice to LPS.