Previous estimates of the diversity of the mouse Ab repertoire have been based on fragmentary data as a result of many technical limitations, in particular, the many samples necessary to provide adequate coverage. In this study, we used 5'-coding end amplification of Igκ mRNAs from bone marrow, splenic, and lymph node B cells of C57BL/6 mice combined with amplicon pyrosequencing to assess the functional and nonfunctional Vκ repertoire. To evaluate the potential effects of receptor editing, we also compared V/J associations and usage in bone marrows of mouse mutants under constitutive negative selection or an altered ability to undergo secondary recombination. To focus on preimmune B cells, our cell sorting strategy excluded memory B cells and plasma cells. Analysis of ~90 Mbp, representing >250,000 individual transcripts from 59 mice, revealed that 101 distinct functional Vκ genes are used but at frequencies ranging from ~0.001 to ~10%. Usage of seven Vκ genes made up >40% of the repertoire. A small class of transcripts from apparently nonfunctional Vκ genes was found, as were occasional transcripts from several apparently functional genes that carry aberrant recombination signals. Of 404 potential V-J combinations (101 Vκs × 4 Jκs), 398 (98.5%) were found at least once in our sample. For most Vκ transcripts, all Jκs were used, but V-J association biases were common. Usage patterns were remarkably stable in different selective conditions. Overall, the primary κ repertoire is highly skewed by preferred rearrangements, limiting Ab diversity, but potentially facilitating receptor editing.