Two lysophospholipids (LPs), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), are known to affect various cellular events. Their actions are mediated by binding to at least ten bona fide high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors referred to as LPA1-5 and S1P1-5. These LPs are expressed throughout the body and are involved in a range of biological activities including normal development, as well as functioning in most organ systems. A growing number of biological functions have been uncovered in vivo using single- or multiple-null mice for each LP receptor. This review will focus on findings from in vivo as well as in vitro studies using genetic null mice for the LP receptors, LPA1,2,3 and S1P1,2,3,5, and for the LP producing enzymes, autotaxin and sphingosine kinase 1/2.