Enzymes have become exceedingly valuable tools in organic synthesis as the reactions they catalyze generally proceed under mild conditions and in high stereo- and regioselectivity. Advances in microbiology and genetic engineering have greatly increased the availability of various enzymes. One of the most useful applications of enzyme-catalyzed chemical transformations is in the synthesis of water-soluble, polyfunctional organic molecules such as carbohydrates. As the pivotal roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes become more evident, access to these compounds becomes increasingly important. This review gives a brief overview of the use of aldolases and transketolases in the synthesis of sugars, sugar analogs, and related compounds.