The protein C pathway is an important regulator of the blood coagulation system. Protein C may also play a role in inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes. Whether protein C or activated protein C affects lymphocyte migration and possible mechanisms involved was tested. Lymphocyte migration was studied by micropore filter assays. Lymphocytes that were pretreated with protein C (Ceprotin) or activated protein C (Xigris) significantly reduced their migration toward IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1, and substance P, but not toward sphingosine-1-phosphate. The inhibitory effects of protein C or activated protein C were reversed by Abs against endothelial protein C receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Evidence for the synthesis of endothelial protein C receptor by lymphocytes is shown by demonstration of receptor mRNA expression and detection of endothelial protein C receptor immunoreactivity on the cells' surface. Data suggest that an endothelial protein C receptor is expressed by lymphocytes whose activation with protein C or activated protein C arrests directed migration. Exposure of lymphocytes to protein C or activated protein C stimulates phosphorylation of Tyr845 of epidermal growth factor receptor, which may be relevant for cytoprotective effects of the protein C pathway.