The role of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the immunotherapy of neuroblastoma was investigated. In vitro experiments showed that IFN-gamma augments the cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and of interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated NK (LAK) cells against neuroblastoma target cells. Incubation of the neuroblastoma cells with IFN-gamma resulted in an increased susceptibility of these target cells to NK and LAK cells. Additionally, the IFN-gamma-treated neuroblastoma cells showed an increased susceptibility to the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In patients who have been treated with continuous infusions of IL-2, IL-2-induced secretion of IFN-gamma was detected by measuring the elevation of the 2-5 A synthetase activity in peripheral mononuclear cells or the 2-5 A oligoadenylates in the serum, although IFN-gamma itself was not detectable. From these results we conclude that IFN-gamma may play an important role in the immunotherapy of neuroblastoma in combination with IL-2 and/or with monoclonal antibodies.