Rats provided limited daily access to cocaine (1 h) maintain stable levels of drug self-administration over time while those switched to longer access (6 h or more) exhibit escalating patterns of drug intake. These results are reminiscent of human recreational and compulsive drug-taking behavior, respectively. We found that the brains of cocaine-self-administering rats were also qualitatively different in subjects having experienced 6-h (Coc6h) daily access compared to 1-h (Coc1h) access. Fourteen days after an eight-day protocol of cocaine self-administration, all subjects received one infusion of cocaine. Coc1h animals showed enhanced c-Fos reactivity in dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic brain regions and a sensitized locomotor response to IV cocaine. In contrast, both the neural and behavioral sensitization to cocaine was diminished in Coc6h animals. These data suggest that the transition to escalating patterns of drug use is associated with neuroadaptive changes that counteract those initially associated with controlled stable patterns of drug use.