Dislocation remains a major complication after THA, and range of motion before impingement is important in joint stability. Variability in implant alignment affects resultant range of motion. We used a probabilistic modeling approach to assess the effects of implant alignment variability based on manual and computer-assisted surgical (CAS) techniques on resultant range of motion after THA. We implemented a contact detection algorithm within a probabilistic analysis framework. The normally distributed alignment variables (mean +/- 1 standard deviation) were cup abduction (manual = 45 degrees +/- 7.6 degrees , CAS = 45 degrees +/- 5.7 degrees ), cup anteversion (manual = 20 degrees +/- 9.6 degrees , CAS = 20 degrees +/- 4.5 degrees ), and stem anteversion (manual and CAS = 10 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees ). The outcomes of the probabilistic analysis were range of motion distributions with 1% and 99% bounds. The upper bounds of motion for manual and CAS alignment were similar because bony impingement was the limiting factor. The lower bounds of range of motion were substantially different depending on the type of surgical alignment; manual alignment produced a smaller range of motion in 3% to 5% of cases. CAS implant alignment produced range of motion values above minimum acceptable levels in all cases simulated.