Organellar compartments involved in secretion are expanded during the transition from late pregnancy (basal secretory state) to lactation (maximal secretory state) to accommodate for the increased secretory function required for copious milk production in mammary epithelial cells. The Golgi complex is a major organelle of the secretory pathway and functions to sort, package, distribute, and post-translationally modify newly synthesized proteins and membrane lipids. These complex functions of the Golgi are reflected in the protein complement of the organelle. Therefore, using proteomics, the protein complements of Golgi fractions isolated at two functional states (basal and maximal) were compared to identify some of the molecular changes that occur during this transition. This global analysis has revealed that only a subset of the total proteins is upregulated from steady state during the transition. Identification of these proteins by tandem mass spectrometry has revealed several classes of proteins involved in the regulation of membrane fusion and secretion. This first installment of the functional proteomic analysis of the Golgi complex begins to define the molecular basis for the transition from basal to maximal secretion.