POEMS syndrome is a rare multisystem affliction known for its signs, from which it also takes its acronym name "peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal (M) protein, and skin lesions." Our study chronicles the course of this syndrome in a young woman with Castleman's disease (angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were abnormally elevated at various times during a 9-month period. The authors conclude that the plasma cell dyscrasia associated with the POEMS syndrome of this patient was Castleman's disease. Elevation of serum IL-6 levels might contribute to the pathogenesis of the POEMS syndrome.