Tissue factor (TF) triggers upstream coagulation signaling via the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs) of relevance for inflammation and angiogenesis. TF pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) is the physiologic inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation, but its role in regulating TF signaling is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous, endothelial cell-expressed TFPI-1 controls TF-mediated signaling through PARs. In endothelial cells transduced with TF to mimic exacerbated TF expression in vascular cells, TF-VIIa-Xa ternary complex-dependent activation of PAR1 remained intact when TF-mediated Xa generation was blocked with 2.5 to 5 nM recombinant TFPI-1 (rTFPI-1). Concordantly, inhibition of signaling in PAR1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells required about 30-fold higher rTFPI-1 concentrations than necessary for anticoagulation. Studies with proteoglycan-deficient CHO cells document a crucial role of accessory receptors in supporting the anticoagulant and antisignaling activities of rTFPI-1. Coexpression of PAR2 with TF enhanced rTFPI-mediated inhibition of TF-VIIa-Xa-mediated PAR1 signaling, suggesting an unexpected role of PAR2 in the inhibitory control of TF signaling. These experiments are of potential significance for the limited therapeutic benefit of rTFPI-1 in systemic inflammation and recommend caution in using anticoagulant potency as a measure to predict how efficacious TF-directed inhibitors block cell signaling during initiation of coagulation.