A cDNA, p1-88, was cloned from a library constructed using rabbit liver mRNA. Sequence analysis indicates that p1-88 is highly similar (congruent to 95%) to the cDNA, p1-8, that encodes rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 1 and that had been isolated from the same library. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by p1-88, P-450 IIC4, differs at 25 of 487 amino acids from that encoded by p1-8. P-450 IIC4 was synthesized in vitro using rabbit reticulocyte lysate primed with RNA transcribed from the coding sequence of p1-88 using a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system. P-450 IIC4 reacts with two monoclonal antibodies that recognize P-450 1 and exhibits the same relative electrophoretic mobility as P-450 1. In contrast, the reactivity of a third monoclonal antibody recognizing P-450 1, 1F11, toward P-450 IIC4 synthesized in vitro is greatly diminished. The latter antibody extensively inhibits hepatic progesterone 21-hydroxylase activity and recognizes phenotypic differences among rabbits in the microsomal concentration of P-450 1. This difference in the immunoreactivity of P-450 IIC4 and P-450 1 with the 1F11 antibody suggests that P-450 IIC4 does not contribute significantly to hepatic progesterone 21-hydroxylase activity. S1 nuclease mapping demonstrates that the expression of mRNAs corresponding to p1-88 are expressed to equivalent extents in rabbits exhibiting high and low expression of mRNAs corresponding to p1-8. Thus, P-450 1 differs from the protein encoded by p1-88, in its regulation, immunoreactivity, and by inference its catalytic properties although the amino acid sequences of P-450 1 and P-450 IIC4 are highly similar (congruent to 95%).