Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors were developed to reduce the gastrointestinal toxicity of conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. However, COX-2 inhibitors decrease prostacyclin production and may disrupt the normal homeostatic balance, leading to a prothrombotic state and offsetting the potential gastrointestinal benefits. Available clinical data and basic biological studies raise significant concern about the potential prothrombotic effect of this class of drugs. Two recent studies with a newer, more selective COX-2 inhibitor have added to the already existing concern about the cardiovascular safety of these agents. The widespread use of these agents mandates prospective, randomized evaluation of the cardiovascular safety of COX-2 inhibitors.