Spatial learning and memory involves the ability to encode geometric relationships between perceived cues and depends critically on the hippocampus. Visually guided spatial learning has been demonstrated in adult animals. As infant animals rely heavily on olfaction, olfactory based spatial learning was assessed in infant mice. When 12-day-old pups were displaced from their nest, they learned within a few training trials to use the spatial pattern of odor cues to move back to the nest. However, mouse pups that over-expressed Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in hippocampal neurons were impaired in olfactory based spatial learning.