Endostatin is a fragment of collagen XVIII that acts as an inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Anti-tumor effects have been described using both soluble and insoluble recombinant endostatin. However, differences in endostatin structure are likely to cause differences in bioactivity. In the present study, we have investigated the cellular effects of insoluble endostatin. We previously found that insoluble endostatin shows all the hallmarks of amyloid aggregates and potently stimulates tissue plasminogen activator-mediated formation of the serine protease plasmin. We here show that amyloid endostatin induces plasminogen activation by endothelial cells, resulting in vitronectin degradation and plasmin-dependent endothelial cell detachment. Endostatin-mediated stimulation of plasminogen activation, vitronectin degradation, and endothelial cell detachment is inhibited by carboxypeptidase B, indicating an essential role for carboxyl-terminal lysines. Our results suggest that amyloid endostatin may inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth by stimulating the fibrinolytic system.