Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces diverse biological responses in many types of cells and tissues by activating its specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Previously, three cognate LPA GPCRs (LP(A1)/VZG-1/EDG-2, LP(A2)/EDG-4, and LP(A3)/EDG-7) were identified in mammals. By contrast, an unrelated GPCR, PSP24, was reported to be a high affinity LPA receptor in Xenopus laevis oocytes, raising the possibility that Xenopus uses a very different form of LPA signaling. Toward addressing this issue, we report two novel Xenopus genes, xlp(A1)-1 and xlp(A1)-2, encoding LP(A1) homologs (approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity with mammalian LP(A1)). Both xlp(A1)-1 and xlp(A1)-2 are expressed in oocytes and the nervous system. Overexpression of either gene in oocytes potentiated LPA-induced oscillatory chloride ion currents through a pertussis toxin-insensitive pathway. Injection of antisense oligonucleotides designed to inhibit xlp(A1)-1 and xlp(A1)-2 expression in oocytes eliminated their endogenous response to LPA. Furthermore, retrovirus-mediated heterologous expression of xlp(A1)-1 or xlp(A1)-2 in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells that are unresponsive to LPA conferred LPA-induced cell rounding and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. These results indicate that XLP(A1)-1 and XLP(A1)-2 are functional Xenopus LPA receptors and demonstrate the evolutionary conservation of LPA signaling over a range of vertebrate phylogeny.