The covalently bound heme cofactor plays a dominant role in the folding of cytochrome c. Because of the complicated inorganic chemistry of the heme, some might consider the folding of cytochrome c to be a special case, following principles different from those used to describe the folding of proteins without cofactors. Recent investigations, however, demonstrate that common models describing folding for many proteins work well for cytochrome c when heme is explicitly introduced, generally providing results that agree with experimental observations. In this Account, we first discuss results from simple native structure-based models. These models include attractive interactions between nonadjacent residues only if they are present in the crystal structure at pH 7. Because attractive nonnative contacts are not included in native structure-based models, their energy landscapes can be described as "perfectly funneled". In other words, native structure-based models are energetically guided towards the native state and contain no energetic traps that would hinder folding. Energetic traps are denoted sources of "frustration", which cause specific transient intermediates to be populated. Native structure-based models do, however, include repulsion between residues due to excluded volume. Nonenergetic traps can therefore exist if the chain, which cannot cross over itself, must partially unfold so that folding can proceed. The ability of native structure-based models to capture this kind of motion is partly responsible for their successful predictions of folding pathways for many types of proteins. Models without frustration describe the sequence of folding events for cytochrome c well (as inferred from hydrogen-exchange experiments), thereby justifying their use as a starting point. At low pH, the experimentally observed folding sequence of cytochrome c deviates from that at pH 7 and from models with perfectly funneled energy landscapes. Here, alternate folding pathways are a result of "chemical frustration". This frustration arises because some regions of the protein are destabilized more than others due to the heterogeneous distribution of titratable residues that are protonated at low pH. Beginning with native structure-based terms, we construct more complex models by adding chemical frustration. These more complex models only modestly perturb the energy landscape, which remains, overall, well funneled. These perturbed models can accurately describe how alternative folding pathways are used at low pH. At alkaline pH, cytochrome c populates distinctly different structural ensembles. For instance, lysine residues are deprotonated and compete for the heme ligation site. The same models that can describe folding at low pH also predict well the structures and relative stabilities of intermediates populated at alkaline pH. The success of models based on funneled energy landscapes suggest that cytochrome c folding is driven primarily by native contacts. The presence of heme appears to add chemical complexity to the folding process, but it does not require fundamental modification of the general principles used to describe folding. Moreover, its added complexity provides a valuable means of probing the folding energy landscape in greater detail than is possible with simpler systems.