Protein homology studies identified five kinases potentially capable of phosphorylating the Spo0F response regulator and initiating sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Two of these kinases, KinA and KinB, were known from previous studies to be responsible for sporulation in laboratory media. In vivo studies of the activity of four of the kinases, KinA, KinC, KinD (ykvD) and KinE (ykrQ), using abrB transcription as an indicator of Spo0A approximately P level, revealed that KinC and KinD were responsible for Spo0A approximately P production during the exponential phase of growth in the absence of KinA and KinB. In vitro, all four kinases dephosphorylated Spo0F approximately P with the production of ATP at approximately the same rate, indicating that they possess approximately equal affinity for Spo0F. All the kinases were expressed during growth and early stationary phase, suggesting that the differential activity observed in growth and sporulation results from differential activation by signal ligands unique to each kinase.