Next-generation DNA sequencing technology was used to score >100,000 mutations resulting from exposure of a nucleic acid template to a mutagenic dNTP analog during a single pass of a DNA polymerase. An RNA template of known secondary structure was reverse transcribed in the presence of 8-oxo-dGTP, dPTP or both, followed by forward transcription in the presence of standard NTPs. Each mutagen, whether used alone or in combination, resulted in a highly characteristic mutation profile. Mutations were generated at a mean frequency of 1-2% per eligible nucleotide position, but there was substantial variation in the frequency of mutation at different positions, with a SD close to the mean. This variation was partly due to the identity of the immediately surrounding nucleotides and was not significantly influenced by the secondary structure of the RNA template. Most of the variation appears to result from idiosyncratic features that derive from local sequence context, demonstrating how different genetic sequences have different chemical phenotypes.