Recent interest in the problem of antibiotic resistance has led to the identification of new targets and strategies for antibiotic discovery. Among these efforts, the development of small molecules as antibiotics to target carbohydrate receptors or carbohydrate-modifying enzymes represents a new direction. This review covers recent work in this regard and discusses the impact of each strategy on the development of drug resistance. Particularly interesting targets include unique cell-surface carbohydrates, the transglycosylase involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and bacterial RNA. With a greater understanding of the genome of different bacteria as well as advances in functional genomics and proteomics, we can expect the discovery of a variety of targets for the development of novel antibiotics.