Morphine-induced analgesia has been shown to be antagonized by ginseng total saponins (GTS), which also inhibit the development of analgesic tolerance to and physical dependence on morphine. GTS is involved in both of these processes by inhibiting morphine-6-dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the synthesis of morphinone from morphine, and by increasing the level of hepatic glutathione, which participates in the toxicity response. Thus, the dual actions of ginseng are associated with the detoxification of morphine. In addition, the inhibitory or facilitated effects of GTS on electrically evoked contractions in guinea pig ileum (mu-receptors) and mouse vas deferens (delta-receptors) are not mediated through opioid receptors, suggesting the involvement of non-opioid mechanisms. GTS also attenuates hyperactivity, reverse tolerance (behavioral sensitization), and conditioned place preference induced by psychotropic agents, such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and morphine. These effects of GTS may be attributed to complex pharmacological actions between dopamine receptors and a serotonergic/adenosine A2A/ delta-opioid receptor complex. Ginsenosides also attenuate the morphine-induced cAMP signaling pathway. Together, the results suggest that GTS may be useful in the prevention and therapy of the behavioral side effects induced by psychotropic agents.