Familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF) is a systemic amyloid disease associated with the deposition of proteolytic fragments of mutant (D187N/Y) plasma gelsolin. We report a mouse model of FAF featuring a muscle-specific promoter to drive D187N gelsolin synthesis. This model recapitulates the aberrant endoproteolytic cascade and the aging-associated extracellular amyloid deposition of FAF. Amyloidogenesis is observed only in tissues synthesizing human D187N gelsolin, despite the presence of full-length D187N gelsolin and its 68-kDa cleavage product in blood-demonstrating the importance of local synthesis in FAF. Loss of muscle strength was progressive in homozygous D187N gelsolin mice. The presence of misfolding-prone D187N gelsolin appears to exacerbate the age-associated decline in cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), reflected by the intracellular deposition of numerous proteins, a characteristic of the most common degenerative muscle disease of aging humans, sporadic inclusion body myositis.