Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mice) have inducible human immune function and may be useful as a small animal model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research. Hu-PBL-SCID mice infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) contained virus that was recoverable by culture from the peritoneal cavity, spleen, peripheral blood, and lymph nodes for up to 16 weeks after infection; viral sequences were also detected by in situ hybridization and by amplification with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mice could be infected with multiple strains of HIV-1, including LAV-1/Bru, IIIB, MN, SF2, and SF13. HIV-1 infection affected the concentration of human immunoglobulin and the number of CD4+ T cells in the mice. These results support the use of the hu-PBL-SCID mouse for studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of AIDS.