Recently we reported that antibodies can generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*). We now show that this process is catalytic, and we identify the electron source for a quasi-unlimited generation of H2O2. Antibodies produce up to 500 mole equivalents of H2O2 from 1O2*, without a reduction in rate, and we have excluded metals or Cl- as the electron source. On the basis of isotope incorporation experiments and kinetic data, we propose that antibodies use H2O as an electron source, facilitating its addition to 1O2* to form H2O3 as the first intermediate in a reaction cascade that eventually leads to H2O2. X-ray crystallographic studies with xenon point to putative conserved oxygen binding sites within the antibody fold where this chemistry could be initiated. Our findings suggest a protective function of immunoglobulins against 1O2* and raise the question of whether the need to detoxify 1O2* has played a decisive role in the evolution of the immunoglobulin fold.