Receptors for the third component of complement (C3) were demonstrated on the surface of established human lymphoid cell lines by a membrane fluorescence test with FITC- or TRITC-conjugated antibodies against human C3. Two-color fluorescence staining of EBV receptors and C3 receptors showed complete overlapping of green and red fluorescence. Capping of the EBV receptor induced co-capping of the C3 receptor and vice versa. There was neither overlapping nor co-capping when EBV or C3 receptors were examined in relation to Fc receptors, surface IgM or beta2 microglobulin. The kinetic pattern of EBV receptor capping was identical with the pattern of C3 receptor capping but differed from the pattern of IgM capping. These results suggest a close association between EBV and C3 receptors on the human B-lymphocyte.