Oxidative stress and inflammation are risk factors for both the development of alpha-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease, the two most common neurodegenerative disorders. These diseases are associated with the neurotoxic deposition of misassembled alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides, respectively. Both occur sporadically, that is, without detectable disease-related mutations, in the vast majority of cases. Small molecule oxidation products, especially secosterols derived from cholesterol and 4-hydroxynonenal derived from lipid peroxidation, found in afflicted brains, accelerate the misassembly of both Abeta and alpha-synuclein. This Account explores the mechanism of small molecule oxidation product-mediated protein misassembly and possible intervention strategies.