Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades epithelial cells. Upon bacterial-cell contact, the type III bacterial effector IpaA binds to the cytoskeletal protein vinculin to promote actin reorganization required for efficient bacterial uptake. We show that the last 74 C-terminal residues of IpaA (A559) bind to human vinculin (HV) and promotes its association with actin filaments. Polymerisation experiments demonstrated that A559 was sufficient to induce HV-dependent partial capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments. These results suggest that IpaA regulates actin polymerisation/depolymerisation at sites of Shigella invasion by modulating the barbed end capping activity of vinculin.