Brush border myosin I (BBMI) is a single-headed molecular motor. Its catalytic domain exhibits extensive sequence homology to the catalytic domain of myosin II, while its tail lacks the coiled-coil nature of myosin II. The BBMI tail domain contains at least three IQ motifs and binds calmodulin. Addition of calcium removes one of these calmodulin light chains, with effects on ATPase activity and motility in in vitro assays. Using the techniques of cryoelectron microscopy and helical image analysis we have calculated three-dimensional (3D) maps of BBMI-decorated actin filaments prepared in the presence and absence of calcium. The 3D maps describe a BBMI catalytic domain that is strikingly similar to the catalytic domain of myosin II subfragment 1 (S1), with the exception of a short amino-terminal region of the heavy chain, which is absent from BBMI. The tail domains of BBMI and S1 are highly divergent in structure, continuing on from their respective motor domains with very different geometries. Addition of calcium to BBMI, and the concomitant loss of a calmodulin light chain, results in an extensive reorganization of mass in the tail domain.