The isolation, characterization, and molecular cloning of a 75-kda gelatinase b-like enzyme, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (mmp) family - an avian enzyme that is mmp-9-like in its cell expression pattern but diverges from mammalian gelatinase b in sequence and biochemical properties
We have isolated a novel 75-kDa gelatinase from a chicken macrophage cell line, HD11. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the purified enzyme demonstrated that it is distinct from the chicken 72-kDa gelatinase A (MMP-2). The enzyme is capable of specific gelatin binding and rapid gelatin cleavage. Incubation with an organomercurial compound (p-aminophenylmercuric acetate) induces proteolytic processing and activation of this enzyme, and the resultant gelatinolytic activity is sensitive to both zinc chelators and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. A full-length cDNA for the enzyme has been cloned, and sequence analysis demonstrated that the enzyme possesses the characteristic multidomain structure of an MMP gelatinase including a cysteine switch prodomain, three fibronectin type II repeats, a catalytic zinc binding region, and a hemopexin-like domain. The 75-kDa gelatinase is produced by phorbol ester-treated chicken bone marrow cells, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cell types that charac- teristically produce the 92-kDa mammalian gelatinase B (MMP-9). The absence of a 90-110-kDa gelatinase in these cell types indicates that the 75-kDa gelatinase is likely the avian counterpart of gelatinase B. However, the protein is only 59% identical to human gelatinase B, whereas all previously cloned chicken MMP homologues are 75-90% identical to their human counterparts. In addition, the new 75-kDa chicken gelatinase lacks the type V collagen domain that is found in all mammalian gelatinase Bs. Furthermore, the secreted enzyme appears structurally distinct from known gelatinase Bs and the activated enzyme can cleave fibronectin, which is not a substrate for mammalian gelatinase B. Thus the results of this study indicate that a second MMP gelatinase exists in chickens, and although it is MMP-9/gelatinase B-like in its overall domain structure and expression pattern, it appears to be biochemically divergent from mammalian gelatinase B.