The field of proteomics aims to develop and apply technologies for the characterization of protein function on a global scale. Toward this end, synthetic chemistry has played a major role by providing new reagents to profile segments of the proteome based on activity rather than abundance. Small molecule probes for activity-based protein profiling have been created for more than a dozen enzyme classes and used to discover several enzyme activities elevated in disease states. These innovations have inspired complementary advancements in analytical chemistry, where new platforms have been introduced to augment the information content achievable in chemical proteomics experiments. Here, we will review these analytical platforms and discuss how they have exploited the versatility of chemical probes to gain unprecedented insights into the function of proteins in biological samples of high complexity.