Gram-negative bacteremia poses a major health problem, causing one-half of cases of lethal septic shock acquired during hospitalization. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been shown to be essential mediators of septic shock. Among the effects of these mediators is a coagulopathy that may be triggered by induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on macrophages and endothelial cells. We now report that 500 micrograms/kg of either immunoglobulin G (IgG) or Fab fragments of a monoclonal antibody against TF administered to baboons as a pretreatment attenuates the coagulopathy and protects against LD100 Escherichia coli. This study provides direct evidence of an essential effector role for TF in septic shock.