Postmortem and angiographic studies have demonstrated that thrombosis is the primary cause of coronary artery occlusion in smokers. Further, smokers have high levels of fibrinogen, increased platelet aggregation, and more platelet-dependent thrombin generation than do nonsmokers, suggesting that glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor use during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be especially useful among smokers. We evaluated a subpopulation of active smokers in the REPLACE-2 trial to assess the effect of treating smokers with bivalirudin and provisional GP IIb/IIIa blockade compared with heparin and planned GP IIb/IIIa blockade. The REPLACE-2 trial enrolled 1,558 smokers and 4,305 nonsmokers. Smokers who were treated with bivalirudin had an absolute 3.2% increase in the composite end point of death and myocardial infarction at 48 hours compared with smokers who were treated with heparin and GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (7.7% vs 4.5%, p=0.008, interaction p=0.016). This difference was ameliorated when GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors were used consistently in a previous trial that compared bivalirudin with heparin during PCI (4.6% vs 6.7%, p=0.322). In conclusion, these results suggest that smokers may derive particular benefit with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors for decreasing myocardial infarction and death after PCI. These findings require further validation from other large, randomized trials.