The binding of human coagulation factor XI to washed human platelets was studied in the presence of zinc ions, calcium ions, and high molecular weight kininogen. Significant factor XI binding occurred at physiological levels of these metal ions when high molecular weight kininogen was present. Binding required platelet stimulation and was specific, reversible, and saturable. Scatchard analysis of the binding yielded approximately 1500 binding sites per platelet with an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 10 nM. Since the concentration of factor XI in plasma is about 25 nM, this suggests that in plasma factor XI binding sites on stimulated platelets might be saturated. Calcium ions and high molecular weight kininogen acted synergistically to enhance the ability of low concentrations of zinc ions to promote factor XI binding. The similarity between the concentrations of metal ions optimal for factor XI binding and those optimal for high molecular weight kininogen binding, as well as the ability of high molecular weight kininogen to modulate these metal ion effects, implies that factor XI and high molecular weight kininogen may form a complex on the platelet surface as they do in solution and on artificial negatively charged surfaces.